Any document filed with the USPTO must be under oath or subscribed to by a written declaration. Declarations may be used in lieu of an oath if they state that willful false statements and the like:
- Are punishable by a fine, imprisonment, or both; and
- May jeopardize the validity of the application or any patent issuing thereon.
The declaration must also state that all statements are true, or that all statements made on information and belief are believed to be true, and are made of the declarant’s own knowledge.